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Social Science Learning Media in Elementary School

Social Science Learning Media in Elementary School

In a teaching and learning process, two very important elements are teaching methods and learning media. These two aspects are interrelated. The use of learning media in the teaching and learning process can generate new interests and desires, motivation as well as stimulation of learning activities and even bring psychological effects on students. As we have seen many times, the styles and media used during the teaching and learning process that are less favored by students will affect the level of student interest in learning.


Media is one that plays a role in the process of teaching and learning activities, especially in social studies learning in elementary schools. By using learning media, it is hoped that students can better understand the material taught by the teacher. Therefore, learning media is a thing that supports the learning process in elementary school.


A. Understanding Social Studies Learning Media in SD

Media comes from Latin, which is the plural form of "medium" which means an intermediary or tool (means) to achieve something. According to the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT, 1977) learning media are everything or power that can be utilized by teachers, either separately or in combination, for the benefit of teaching and learning with the aim of increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of learning objectives.


As a social studies learning media, educational media is needed to foster students' understanding of social studies subject matter. Diversification of media or multi-media applications is highly recommended in the social studies learning process, for example through: direct experience of students in the community; dramatizations, exhibitions and collections of objects, television and films, radio recordings, pictures, photographs in various sizes suitable for social studies learning, graphs, charts, charts, schematics, maps, magazines, newspapers, bulletins, folders, pamphlets and caricatures , libraries, learning resources, social studies laboratory; and lectures, questions and answers, oral stories, and the like (Ruampakk, 1988: 23-27; Mulyono, 1980: 10-12).


B. Functions of Social Studies Learning Media in SD

The increasing role of the media often causes concern on the part of teachers. The teacher is afraid that the two functions will be shifted by the learning media. These worries do not need to occur if the teacher understands well about the actual duties and roles. Providing individual guidance and attention to students is an important task that has not been fully implemented so far.


In general, learning media have the following functions:

1. Clarify the presentation of the message so that it is not too verbalistic (in the form of written or spoken words only)

2. Overcoming the limitations of space, time, and senses, for example:

a. Objects that are too large can be replaced with realities, pictures, films, film frames, and models.

b. Small objects, can be assisted with a micro projector, film, and images.

c. Events or events that occurred in the past, can be displayed again through films, videos, photos, or verbally.

d. Objects that are too complex, such as machines, can be presented with models, pictures, and others.

e. Concepts that are too broad (volcanoes, earthquakes, climate, etc.) can be visualized in the form of films, pictures, and others.

3. As an appropriate and varied educational media, so that it can overcome the passive nature of students.

4. Cultivate a unique attitude in each student, coupled with a different environment and experience.


C. Implementation of social studies learning media in SD

Mass media is a type of communication addressed to a number of dispersed, heterogeneous, and anonymous audiences through print or electronic media, so that the same information message can be received simultaneously and momentarily. The definition of "can" here emphasizes the notion that the actual number of recipients of information messages through the mass media at any given moment is not essential.

As for the forms of mass media, broadly speaking, there are two types, namely: print media (newspapers and magazines, including books) and electronic media (television and radio, including the internet).


Mass media can be used as social studies learning media, because mass media is essentially an audio-visual representation of society itself. So that factual phenomena that occur in the community can be directly covered and broadcast by the mass media (via television or radio broadcasts, for example). Utilization of mass media means the use of various forms of mass media, both printed and electronic for certain purposes-which in this study is referred to as Social Studies learning media.


Teachers can utilize or empower mass media as social studies learning media optimally and effectively so that they can support the success of social studies learning in three ways, namely: